今日介绍大项“滑冰（Skating）”的3个分项——速度滑冰（SpeedSkating）、花样滑冰（Figure Skating）和短道速滑（Short Track），及另一大项“冬季两项（Biathlon）”。
A Brief Introduction to
Winter Olympic Sports (II)
Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating. In the Olympic Games, long-track speed skating is usually referred to as just “speed skating”, while short-track speed skating is known as “short track”.
Speed skating appeared for the first time in 1924 at the first Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix. Initially, only men were allowed to participate. It was only at the Lake Placid Games in 1932 that women were authorised to compete in speed skating, which was then only a demonstration sport. It was not until the 1960 Games in Squaw Valley that women’s speed skating was officially included in the Olympic programme.
Races are run counter-clockwise on a 400-meter oval. The events almost always follow the European system, which consists of skaters competing two-by-two. Skaters must change lanes every lap. The skater changing from the outside lane to the inside has right-of-way. Skaters may be disqualified for false starts, impeding, and cutting inside the track. If a skater misses their race or falls they have the option to race their distance again. There are no heats or finals in long track, all rankings are by time.
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport included in the Olympics, in 1908. Olympic sports in figure skating comprise the following disciplines:
● Singles competition for men and women (who are referred to as “ladies” in ISU rulebooks), wherein individual skaters perform jumps, spins, step sequences, spirals, and other elements in their programs.
● Pair skating teams consist of a woman and a man. Pairs perform elements that are specific to the discipline such as throw jumps, in which the man ‘throws’ the woman into a jump; lifts, in which the woman is held above the man’s head in one of various grips and positions; pair spins, in which both skaters spin together about a common axis; death spirals; and other elements such as side-by-side jumps and spins in unison.
● Ice dancing is again for couples consisting of a woman and a man skating together. Ice dance differs from pairs in focusing on intricate footwork performed in close dance holds, in time with the music. Ice dance lifts must not go above the shoulder.
The four disciplines of men’s singles, ladies’ singles, pair skating and ice dancing also appeared as part of a team event for the first time at the 2014 Winter Olympics.
Short Track Speed Skating
Short track speed skating is a form of competitive ice speed skating. In competitions, multiple skaters (typically between four and six) skate on an oval ice track with a circumference of 111.111 metres (364.54 ft). The rink itself is 60 metres (200 ft) by 30 metres (98 ft), which is the same size as an international-sized ice hockey rink. Short track speed skating is the sister sport to long track speed skating.
In short track speed skating, athletes compete not against the clock, but against each other. This introduces the elements of strategy, bravery and skill needed for racing.
After having been a demonstration sport at the 1988 Games in Calgary, short track speed skating became part of the Olympic programme in Albertville in 1992, with two individual events and two relays. The discipline comprises men’s and women’s events. Since the 2006 Olympic Games in Turin, the programme of this discipline has included eight events.
In recent Games, China and South Korea have emerged to challenge North American dominance in this event. Indeed at the 2006 Turin Games, it was South Korea who emerged as the nation to beat, winning an incredible six gold medals, and 11 medals in total.
A biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski through a cross-country trail system whose total distance is divided into either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant’s total running distance/time. The contestant with the shortest total time wins.
For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets and receives a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules.
In order to keep track of the contestants’ progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times (intermediate times) are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round. The large display screens commonly set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will typically list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the times and time differences to the closest runners-up.